Alzheimer’s disease (AD) considered as the third health “killer” has seriously threatened the health of the elderly. However, the modern diagnostic strategies of AD present several disadvantages: the low accuracy and specificity resulting in some false-negative diagnoses, and the poor sensitivity leading to a delayed treatment. Researchers from Zhengzhou University proposed a enzyme-free and target-triggered signal amplification strategy, based on graphene oxide (GO) and entropy-driven strand displacement reaction (ESDR) principle. In this strategy, when the hairpin structure probes (H)specially binds with beta-amyloid-(1-42) oligomers (Aβ42 oligomers), it’s structure will be opened, causing the bases complementary to FAM-labeled replacement probes R (R1 and R2) exposed. At this time, R1 and R2 will hybridize with H, resulting in the bound Aβ42 oligomers released. The released Aβ42 oligomers would participate in the next cycle reaction, making the signal amplified. As a quencher, GO could absorb the free single-stranded DNA R1 and R2 and quench their fluorescence; however, the DNA duplex still exists free and keeps its signal-on. Through the detection of Aβ42 oligomers in exosomes, this ultrasensitive detection method with the advantages of low limit of detection (LOD, 20 pM), great accuracy, excellent precision and convenience provides an excellent prospect for AD’s early diagnosis.
A sensitive detection assay based on signal amplification technology for Alzheimer’s disease’s early biomarker in exosome
Zhou J, Meng L, Ye W, Wang Q, Geng S, Sun C. (2018) A sensitive detection assay based on signal amplification technology for Alzheimer’s disease’s early biomarker in exosome. Anal Chim Acta 1022:124-130. [abstract]