Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can facilitate essential communication among cells in a range of pathophysiological conditions including cancer metastasis and progression, immune regulation, and neuronal communication. EVs are membrane-enclosed vesicles generated through endocytic origin and contain many cellular components, including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and metabolites. Over the past few years, the intravesicular content of EVs has proven to be a valuable biomarker for disease diagnostics, involving cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system diseases. This review aims to provide insight into EV biogenesis, composition, function, and isolation, present a comprehensive overview of emerging techniques for EV cargo analysis, highlighting their major technical features and limitations, and summarize the potential role of EV cargos as biomarkers in disease diagnostics. Further, progress and remaining challenges will be discussed for clinical diagnostic outlooks.
Analysis and biomedical applications of functional cargo in extracellular vesicles
Qian F, Huang Z, Zhong H, Lei Q, Ai Y, Xie Z, Zhang T, Jiang B, Zhu W, Sheng Y, Hu J, Brinker CJ. (2022) Analysis and Biomedical Applications of Functional Cargo in Extracellular Vesicles. ACS Nano [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]