Repairing critical bone defects is a complex problem in the clinic. The periosteum rich in nerve plays a vital role in initiating and regulating bone regeneration. However, current studies have paid little attention to repairing nerves in the periosteum to promote bone regeneration. Thus, it is essential to construct bionic periosteum with the targeted injured nerves in the periosteum.
Researchers at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology coupled phosphatidylserine (PS) targeted aptamers with repair Schwann cell exosomes to construct exosome-aptamer (EA). Then through PEI, EA was successfully built on the surface of the electrospun fiber, which was PCL-PEI-exosome-aptamer (PPEA). Through SEM, TEM, and other technologies, PPEA was characterized. Experiments prove in vivo and in vitro that it has an excellent repair effect on damaged nerves and regeneration of vascular and bones. In vivo, the researchers confirmed that biomimetic periosteum has an apparent ability to promote nerve and bone regeneration by using Microcomputer tomography, hematoxylin-eosin, Masson, and Immunofluorescence. In vitro, they used Immunofluorescence, Real-Time Quantitative PCR, Alkaline phosphatase staining, and other tests to confirm that it has central nerve, blood vessel, and bone regeneration ability. The PPEA biomimetic periosteum has apparent neurogenic, angiogenic, and osteogenic effects. The PPEA biomimetic periosteum will provide a promising method for treating bone defects.
The schematic diagram shows that PPEA electrospun biomimetic periosteum loaded with aptamers engineered exosomes can target injured axons and regenerate blood vessels and bone.