A bio-inspired strategy has recently been developed for camouflaging nanocarriers with biomembranes, such as natural cell membranes or subcellular structure-derived membranes. This strategy endows cloaked nanomaterials with improved interfacial properties, superior cell targeting, immune evasion potential, and prolonged duration of systemic circulation. Researchers from the University of Coimbra summarize recent advances in the production and application of exosomal membrane-coated nanomaterials. The structure, properties, and manner in which exosomes communicate with cells are first reviewed. This is followed by a discussion of the types of exosomes and their fabrication methods. The researchers then discuss the applications of biomimetic exosomes and membrane-cloaked nanocarriers in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, imaging, and the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, they appraise the current challenges associated with the clinical translation of biomimetic exosomal membrane-surface-engineered nanovehicles and evaluate the future of this technology.
Biomedical applications of exosomal-membrane-coated nanosystems
a Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (e.g., skin regeneration and wound-healing applications). b Neurological disorders (e.g., neuroimaging and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease). CNS central nervous system, MI myocardial infarction