Extracellular vesicles (EVs) appear as a new promising cell-free therapy in regenerative medicine. EVs retain characteristics of the cell of origin, and those derived from stem cells may mimic their regenerative properties per se. EVs released by stem cells contain proteins and RNA species that act on recipient cells through a variety of mechanisms, resulting in tissue regeneration. In particular, EVs may sustain tissue proliferation, angiogenesis, and reduce apoptosis and inflammation. A large variety of preclinical data have shown the effect of EVs in acute and chronic tissue kidney, lung, hearth, liver, and brain injury, to name but a few.
The interest in EVs for therapeutic applications is related to their characteristics of safety, targeting ability, and multitarget properties. In particular, EVs derived from stem cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells are among the most studied EV sources. The possibility to engineer EVs and enrich their cargo opens new scenarios, such as delivery of bioactive molecules trough EVs from an autologous origin (serum, plasma, etc.) or from natural sources, such as milk, fruits, and vegetables.
The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an overview of the knowledge about the regenerative role of EVs, focusing on their therapeutic applications. This Special Issue will summarize the application of EVs in preclinical models of acute and chronic tissue injuries, comparing animal models, EV sources, including their subfractions, doses, routes of administration, and efficacy of treatment.TABLE OF CONTENTS