Cellular and molecular targets of extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes progressive joint destruction. Despite the advances in the treatment of this condition there remains a clinical need for safe therapies leading to clinical remission. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) play immunomodulatory and regenerative roles which can be partly mediated by their secretome. In recent years, the important contribution of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to MSC actions has received an increasing interest as a new therapeutic approach.

Researchers at the Polytechnic University of Valencia provide an extensive overview of the immunomodulatory properties of MSC EVs and their effects on articular cells such as fibroblast-like synoviocytes that play a central role in joint destruction. They discuss the anti-arthritic effects of MSC EVs in vitro and in animal models of RA as well as their potential mechanisms. Recent preclinical data suggest that transfer of non-coding RNAs by MSC EVs regulates key signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The researchers also examine a number of EV modifications for improving their anti-arthritic efficacy and carrier ability for drug delivery.

Graphical Abstract

Alcaraz MJ, Guillén MI. (2022) Cellular and Molecular Targets of Extracellular Vesicles from Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Stem Cells Transl Med [Epub ahead of print]. [article]

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