In the last decade, the secreting activity of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) has been widely investigated, due to its possible therapeutic role. In fact, MSCs release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing relevant biomolecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, bioactive lipids, and signaling receptors, able to restore physiological conditions where regenerative or anti-inflammatory actions are needed. An actual advantage would come from the therapeutic use of EVs with respect to MSCs, avoiding the possible immune rejection, the lung entrapment, improving the safety, and allowing the crossing of biological barriers. A number of concerns still have to be solved regarding the mechanisms determining the beneficial effect of MSC-EVs, the possible alteration of their properties as a consequence of the isolation/purification methods, and/or the best approach for a large-scale production for clinical use. Most of the preclinical studies have been successful, reporting for MSC-EVs a protecting role in acute kidney injury following ischemia reperfusion, a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects by reducing disease associated inflammation and fibrosis in lung and liver, and the modulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses in graft versus host disease (GVHD) as well as autoimmune diseases. However, the translation of MSC-EVs to the clinical stage is still at the initial phase. Researchers from Fondazione IRCCS discuss the therapeutic potential of an acellular product such as MSC derived EVs (MSC-EVs) in acute and chronic pathologies.