Endothelial cell damage is an important pathological basis for the deterioration of acute ischemia stroke. Previous studies have been exploring the mechanism of blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cell injury in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. Exosomes act as an important intercellular player in neurovascular communication. However, the characteristic of exosomes derived from BBB endothelial cells in early ischemic stroke is poorly understood.
Researchers at Shenzhen University exposed cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3) to 3 h oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic early cerebral ischemia in vitro and compared miRome and surface protein contents of exosomes derived from bEnd.3 cells by miRNA sequencing and the proximity barcoding assay (PBA). A total of 346 differentially miRNA (159 upregulated and 187 downregulated) were identified via miRNA-Seq in bEnd.3 cells after exposure to OGD for 3 h. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses showed that cell proliferation- and angiogenesis-associated miRNAs were significantly affected. The abnormal changes in top eight miRNAs were further verified by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). PBA experiments showed that the numbers of exosomes carrying the following proteins increased significantly under ischemia, including bFGF, CD146, EPHA2, ABCB5, and ITGB2. These proteins were related to angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and cell inflammation. The network analysis combining PBA data with miRNA-Seq data showed that 79 miRNAs were related to 24 membrane proteins and predicted that there were surface proteins associated with a variety of miRNA molecules, such as ITGA9, XIAP, ADAM1, ITGA2, ITGA3, PDPN, and ITGB1. Meanwhile, there were miRNAs related to various surface proteins including miR-410-3p, miR-378b, and miR-1960. Taken together, these data demonstrated for the first time the changes of exosomal miRNAs and surface protein profiles derived from ischemic microvascular endothelial cells, which may provide new therapeutic targets for BBB protection in ischemic stroke.