from GEN by William Whitford , John W Ludlow and John JS Cadwell
Interest in exosomes has grown of late, particularly since they have been seen to take part in functional interactions with antigen-presenting cells, and in the modulation of the immune response in vivo. For example, tumor exosomes are thought to participate in metastasis of tumor cells, seeding tumor-draining lymph nodes prior to tumor cell migration, and increasing their motility.
These nanovesicles have already proven themselves as having such therapeutic potential as the repair of cardiac tissue after heart attack. Clinical trials for many indications, such as using dendritic cell-derived exosomes to facilitate immune response to cancers, are now underway. As their content is a fingerprint of the type and status of the cell generating them, their prognostic potential as biomarkers, including biomarkers that could be used to predict cell therapy outcome, is being explored.
Current work on exosome manufacturing involves their regulatory-compliant generation in an appropriate cell line and separation from such process-related contaminants as other extracellular vesicles. In current practice, their production can be viewed as sequentially involving at-scale culture of the parent cell line; collection or harvest from the conditioned medium; and purification.
Adipose-derived MSC exosome production in flasks vs. HFBR.
In lab-scale production, any number of culture, harvest, and purification approaches have been reported. Regulated manufacturing-scale production in classified environments, however, imposes constraints upon the production platforms considered. Cells currently employed in large-scale exosome production include mesenchymal stem cells, dendritic cells, and 293T cells. (read more…)