Exosomes are normal vesicles produced in the late endosomes of a cell. They are secreted by cells and play a role in cell-to-cell contact. They are an invaluable aid in cancer diagnosis as they include miRNA, proteins and lncRNAs. Depending on the function of these constituents in cancer, the expression of exosome constituents can be upregulated or downregulated in cancer. Exosomes provide high concentration and protective environment for their cargo, thereby making them superior targets for cancer diagnosis. It has recently been documented that exosomes modulate cell-cell connectivity by molecules included in the exosomes, leading to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In addition, exosomes released from cancer cells are implicated in the development of cancer. Data on the role of exosomes in cancer will thus enhance the effectiveness of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In particular, exosomes are useful sources for biomarkers due to selective cargo loading and similarity to their parental cells. Researchers from Zhejiang University discuss the recent findings to use exosomes as cancer biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, and therapy selection.
Current advancement of exosomes as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and forecasting
Bhat EA, Sajjad N, Thokar FM. (2021) Current advancement of exosomes as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and forecasting. Cancer Treat Res Commun [Epub ahead of print]. [article]