Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) in exosomes have been proven as reliable biomarkers to detect disease progression. In recent years, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based nanomaterials show great potential in the field of diagnosis due to the programmable sequence, various molecule recognition and predictable assembly/disassembly of DNA. Researchers from Tianjin University discuss the molecular design and detection mechanism of DNA nanomaterials, and the developed DNA nanomaterial-based optical probes for exosomal miRNA detection are summarized and discussed. The rationally-designed DNA sequences endows these probes with low background signal and high sensitivity in exosomal miRNA detection, and the detection mechanisms based on different DNA nanomaterials are detailly introduced. At the end, the challenges and future opportunities of DNA nanomaterial-based optical probes in exosomal miRNA detection are discussed. These researchers envision that DNA nanomaterial-based optical probes will be promising in precise biomedicine.
Exosomal miRNAs, as a type of emerging biomarker, can provide reliable information for early diagnosis and disease treatment. This Review summarizes recent advances in DNA nanomaterial-based optical probes for exosomal miRNA detection, and discusses the detection mechanisms of the probes based on five different DNA nanomaterials.