Exosomes secrete from various cells and can be separated from all biological fluids, which possess the properties of their origin, and function as cell communication. Moreover, the exosomes have capacity to envelope a widespread range of contents including genetic materials, proteins, drugs and others which make exosomes play a remarkable role in diagnosis and therapy of different diseases including cancers.
Researchers at Southeast University discuss exosomes’ isolation strategies and the possible combination of some biocompatible nanoparticles with exosomes (Exo-NPs) for biomedical imaging and treatment such as photothermal therapy, magnetic hyperthermia, gene silencing and drug delivery. It is observed that relevant exosomes with characteristics of their origin are promising nanocarriers in the field of oncology to realize cancer theranostics. Attractive features of Exo-NPs such as nano-sized, high penetration, delayed circulation, stability, low immunogenicity, and ability to cross blood brain barriers, distinguished them from other nanocarriers to overcome many hindrances faced in cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Schematic illustration showed source of exosomes and emerging biomedical applications of Exo-NPs. The main biomedical applications include bioimaging, drug delivery and therapy.