Engineered human dendritic cell exosomes as effective delivery system for immune modulation

Exosomes (exos) contain molecular cargo of therapeutic and diagnostic value for cancers and other inflammatory diseases, but their therapeutic potential for periodontitis (PD) remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the directors of immune response and have been extensively used in immune therapy. Augusta University researchers previously reported in a mouse model of PD that custom murine DC-derived exo subtypes could reprogram the immune response toward a bone-sparing or bone-loss phenotype, depending on immune profile. Further advancement of this technology requires the testing of human DC-based exos with human target cells. The researchers main objective in this study is to test the hypothesis that human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC)-derived exos constitute a well-tolerated and effective immune therapeutic approach to modulate human target DC and T cell immune responses in vitro. MoDC subtypes were generated with TGFb/IL-10 (regulatory (reg) MoDCs, CD86lowHLA-DRlowPDL1high), E. coli LPS (stimulatory (stim) MoDCs, CD86highHLA-DRhighPDL1low) and buffer (immature (i) MoDCs, CD86lowHLA-DRmedPDL1low).

Exosomes were isolated from different MoDC subtypes and characterized. Once released from the secreting cell into the surrounding environment, exosomes protect their prepackaged molecular cargo and deliver it to bystander cells. This modulates the functions of these cells, depending on the cargo content. RegMoDCexos were internalized by recipient MoDCs and induced upregulation of PDL1 and downregulation of costimulatory molecules CD86, HLADR, and CD80, while stimMoDCexos had the opposite influence. RegMoDCexos induced CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, which expressed CTLA4 and PD1 but not IL-17A. In contrast, T cells treated with stimMoDCexos induced IL-17A+ Th17 T cells, which were negative for immunoregulatory CTLA4 and PD1. T cells and DCs treated with iMoDCexos were immune ‘neutral’, equivalent to controls.

Proposed model for immunotherapeutic strategy to modulate host immune cells to treat periodontal disease.

Human DC exos present an effective delivery system to modulate human DC and T cell immune responses in vitro. Thus, MoDC exos may present a viable immunotherapeutic agent for modulating immune response in the gingival tissue to inhibit bone loss in periodontal disease.

Elsayed R, Elashiry M, Tran C, Yang T, Carroll A, Liu Y, Hamrick M, Cutler CW. (2023) Engineered Human Dendritic Cell Exosomes as Effective Delivery System for Immune Modulation. Int J Mol Sci 24(14):11306. [article]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *