In recent years, due to the limitations of the nature of therapeutic agents, many synthetic nano-delivery systems have emerged to enhance the efficacy of drugs. Extracellular vesicles are currently a class of natural nano-scale drug carriers released by cells. As a tiny vesicle with a lipid bilayer membrane that can be secreted by most cells in the body, exosomes carry and transmit important signal molecules, Therefore, they have been a research hotspot in biomedicine and biomaterials due to their size advantages and huge potential in drug therapy. Many people are optimistic about the clinical application prospects of exosomes and are actively exploring the broad functions of exosomes and developing exosome therapeutic agents to make positive contributions to human health. Researchers from the Institute of Process Engineering, Beijing discuss the advantages of exosomes as drug carriers, methods of loading drugs, targeting strategies, in vivo and in vitro tracing methods, and some of the latest developments in exosomes as drug carriers.