Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicles belonging to endocytic origin. These vesicles carry different biological cargo that play numerous physiological roles and is also indicative of different diseased state. Exosomes are considered as promising tools for therapeutic drug delivery, owing to their intrinsic features like stability, biocompatibility and a capacity of stealth. A clearer understanding of the composition, biogenesis and biology of exosomes can provide us with better insights into the pathophysiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic roles of these extracellular vesicles. Researchers from Assam University summarize existing literature regarding the production, efficacy, action mechanism, and potential therapeutic roles of exosomes in the contexts of various diseases such as cancer, renal disease, neurological disorders, cardio-vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases and some of the auto-immune diseases.