Exosomes are 40- to 100- nm cell-originated vesicles derived from endocytic compartments that are released into almost all biological fluids. Exosomes are cell-created vesicles that inherit identical phospholipid membrane, explaining a wide application of electroporation as a technique for exosomes loading with exogenous cargoes. Another way of loading exosomes with therapeutic cargo is to overexpress a certain gene in exosome-donor cells or treat cell line with drug of interest that later will be gently enveloped into vesicles based on the process of EV biogenesis. Similarly, to visualize siRNA loading into exosomes as well as the exosomal product delivery to recipient cells, researchers from the University of Louisville, School of Medicine have conducted an experiment where chemical-based exosome transfection was used. Here, they discuss different ways of extracellular vesicle loading with exogenous cargoes and their advantages/limitations as well as novel alternative techniques of substance incorporation into nanoparticles.
Exosomes – cell-created drug delivery systems
Familtseva A, Jeremic N, Tyagi SC. (2019) Exosomes: cell-created drug delivery systems. Mol Cell Biochem 459(1-2):1-6. [abstract]