Exosomes as a unique subtype of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have attracted increasing interest in recent years in the fields of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) research. Studies have confirmed that exosomes derived from MSCs preserve immunosuppressive phenotype and can mimic therapeutic benefits of their parent cells. Researchers from the University of Maryland summarize most recent findings on the potential of exosomes as an alternative of therapeutic MSCs, focusing on the role of MSCs and their secreted exosomes in regulation of immune cells, preclinical and clinical evidence of therapeutic outcomes of MSC exosomes, and the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of systemically administered exosomes. It is appreciated that exosomes from MSCs of different sources have variable contents including inflammatory mediators, tropic factors, signaling molecules, and nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, microRNA and long non-coding RNA). Diverse functions of exosomes derived from different sources are expected. More importantly, exosomes isolated in vitro may not mirror that from in vivo, where donor MSCs are exposed to specific disease or injury-related conditions. Simulating in vivo microenvironment by pretreatment of MSCs with relevant chemical mediators may lead to their secretion of therapeutically more efficient exosomes/sEVs. However, we know very little about the key molecules involved and the differences between exosomes released under different conditions. These issues would be of tremendous interest to preclinical research that pursues exosome biology-underlain therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs. Further studies are expected to demonstrate the superiority of MSC-derived exsomes/sEVs as a pharmaceutical entity with regard to efficacy, safety, and practicability.
Exosomes in perspective – a potential surrogate for stem cell therapy
Ren K. (2018) Exosomes in perspective: a potential surrogate for stem cell therapy. Odontology [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]