There is increasing evidence that extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate the paracrine effects of stem cells. Although EVs have several attractive characteristics, they also raise issues related to delivery. For patients with cardiac disease that require a surgical procedure, direct intramyocardial (IM) administration of EVs is straightforward but its efficacy may be limited by fast wash-out, hence the interest of incorporating EVs into a controlled release polymer to optimize their residence time. For patients without surgical indication, the intravenous (IV) route is attractive because of its lack of invasiveness; however, whole-body distribution limits the fraction of EVs that reach the heart, hence the likely benefits of EV engineering to increase EV homing to the target tissue.
Extracellular Vesicles and Biomaterial Design – New Therapies for Cardiac Repair
Pezzana C, Agnely F, Bochot A, Siepmann J, Menasché P. (2020) Extracellular Vesicles and Biomaterial Design: New Therapies for Cardiac Repair. Trends in Molecular Medicine [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]