The therapeutic effects of stem cell therapy in organ repair, specifically those utilizing mesenchymal stromal cells, are largely dependent on the cells’ release of different bio-products. Among these bio-products, extracellular vesicles (EVs) appear to play a major role due to their ability to carry and deliver bioactive material for modulation of cellular pathways in recipient cells. Concurrently, mitochondria transfer emerged as a new mechanism of cell communication, in which the bioenergetics of a damaged cell are restored. Finally, apoptotic bodies released by dying apoptotic stem cells contribute to stimulation of the tissue’s stem cells and modulation of the immune response.
Exploitation of isolated extracellular vesicles, mitochondria and apoptotic bodies in preclinical models of organ damage shows promising results. Here, University of Torino researchers describe the results of the pre-clinical applications of stem cell vesicular products, as well as the first clinical trials approaching artificial administration of extracellular vesicles and mitochondria in human subjects and their possible benefits and limitations.
Presentation of apoptotic and healthy cell secretome