Urologic cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors, some of which have poor prognosis. This is partly due to the unavailability of specific and sensitive diagnostic techniques and monitoring tests, ideally non- or minimally invasive. Hence, liquid biopsies are promising tools that have been gaining significant attention over the last decade. Among the different classes of biomarkers that can be isolated from biofluids, urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) are a promising low-invasive source of biomarkers, with the potential to improve cancer diagnosis and disease management. Different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles; however, no consensus has been reached, challenging the comparison among studies. This results in a vast number of studies portraying an extensive list of uEV-derived candidate biomarkers for urologic cancers, with the potential to improve clinical outcome; however, without significant validation. Researchers from the Oslo University Hospital discuss the current published research on miRNA and protein-derived uEV for prostate, bladder and kidney cancers, focusing on different uEV isolation methods, and its implications for biomarker studies.
Extracellular vesicles as liquid biopsies for prostate cancer