Osteosarcoma, a primary malignant tumor of the skeleton, has a morbidity of 2.5 per 1 million people. The epiphysis of extremities is typically affected. Osteosarcoma has a high likelihood of early metastasis, rapid progression, and poor prognosis. The survival rate of patients with metastatic or recurrent osteosarcoma remains low; therefore, novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods are urgently needed. Exosomes, extracellular vesicles 30–150 nm in diameter, are secreted by various cells and are widely present in various body fluids. Exosomes are abundant in biologically active components, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Exosomes participate in numerous physiological and pathological processes via intercellular substance exchange and signaling. Researchers from Shenzhen University present the novel findings regarding exosomes in osteosarcoma diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics.
The interaction of OS and related cells through exosomes
Mesenchymal stem cells, CAFs, and CSCs secrete exosomes containing specific proteins and genetic material, which promote the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of OS. OS cells generate exosomes targeting specific cells that promote angiogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and immunomodulation of the target cells. OS promotes drug resistance, proliferation, and metastasis through exosome secretion.