Graphene-based materials are intriguing nanomaterials with applications ranging from nanotechnology-related devices to drug delivery systems and biosensing. Multifunctional graphene platforms were proposed for the detection of several typical biomarkers (i.e., circulating tumor cells, exosomes, circulating nucleic acids, etc.) in liquid biopsy, and numerous methods, including optical, electrochemical, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), etc., have been developed for their detection. Due to the massive advancements in biology, material chemistry, and analytical technology, it is necessary to review the progress in this field from both medical and chemical sides. Liquid biopsy is considered a revolutionary technique that is opening unexpected perspectives in the early diagnosis and, in therapy monitoring, severe diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative disorders. Although nanotechnology based on graphene has been poorly applied for the rapid diagnosis of viral diseases, the extraordinary properties of graphene (i.e., high electronic conductivity, large specific area, and surface functionalization) can be also exploited for the diagnosis of emerging viral diseases, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). University of Messina researchers provide a comprehensive and in-depth summarization of the contribution of graphene-based nanomaterials in liquid biopsy, discussing the remaining challenges and the future trend, moreover, the paper gave the first look at the potentiality of graphene in COVID-19 diagnosis.
(A) Representative structure of the microfluidic platform based on graphene oxide/polydopamine (GO/PDA) for the immunocapture of exosome. (B) Representative EXs detection by ELISA colorimetric test using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a reporter enzyme in the secondary antibody. (C) Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tag with related SERS tag toolbox.