Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stromal cells that release extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs contain various growth factors and antioxidants that can positively affect the surrounding cells. Nanoscale MSC-derived EVs, such as exosomes, have been developed as bio-stable nano-type materials. However, some issues, such as low yield and difficulty in quantification, limit their use. Researchers from Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine hypothesized that enhancing exosome production using nanoparticles would stimulate the release of intracellular molecules.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of exosome generation by comparing the internalization of surface-modified, positively charged nanoparticles and exosome generation from MSCs. The researchers determined that Rab7, a late endosome and auto-phagosome marker, was increased upon exosome expression and was associated with autophagosome formation.
It was concluded that the nanoparticles the researchers developed were transported to the lysosome by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. additionally, entered nanoparticles stimulated that autophagy related factors to release exosome from the MSC. MSC-derived exosomes using nanoparticles may increase exosome yield and enable the discovery of nanoparticle-induced genetic factors.