Tangent flow-driven ultrafiltration (TF-UF) is an efficient isolation process of milk exosomes without morphological deformation. However, the TF-UF approach with micro-ultrafiltration SiNx membrane filters suffers from the clogging and fouling of micro-ultrafiltration membrane filter pores with large bioparticles. Thus, it is limited in the long term, continuous isolation of large quantities of exosomes.
Researchers from Kookmin University introduced electrophoretic oscillation (EPO) in the TF-UF approach to remove pore clogging and fouling of with micro-ultrafiltration SiNx membrane filters by large bioparticles. As a result, the combined EPO-assisted TF (EPOTF) filtration can isolate large quantities of bovine milk exosomes without deformation. Furthermore, several morphological and biological analyses confirmed that the EPOTF filtration approach could isolate the milk exosomes in high concentrations with high purity and intact morphology. In addition, the uptake test of fluorescent-labeled exosomes by the keratinocyte cells visualized the biological function of purified exosomes. Hence, compared to the TF-UF process, the EPOTF filtration produced a higher yield of bovine milk exosomes without stopping the filtering process for over 200 h. Therefore, this isolation process enables scalable and continuous production of morphologically intact exosomes from bovine milk, suggesting that high-quality exosome purification is possible for future applications such as drug nanocarriers, diagnosis, and treatments.