Liquid biopsy is of great significance in tumor early diagnosis and treatment stratification. PD-L1-positive small extracellular vesicles (PD-L1+ sEVs) are closely related to tumor growth and immunotherapy response, which are considered valuable liquid biopsy biomarkers. In contrast to conventional in vitro detection, in vivo detection has the ability to improve the detection efficiency and enable continuous or real-time dynamic monitoring. However, in vivo detection of PD-L1+ sEVs has multiple difficulties, such as high cell background, complex blood environments, and lack of a specific and stable detection method.
Researchers from Wuhan University have constructed an in vivo detection of PD-L1+ sEVs method, which efficiently separated sEVs based on the microfluidic device and quantitatively analyzed PD-L1+ sEVs by aptamer recognition and hybridization chain reaction. The concentration of PD-L1+ sEVs was continuously monitored, and significant differences at different stages of tumor as well as a correlation with tumor volume were found. Diseased and healthy individuals could also be effectively distinguished based on the concentration of PD-L1+ sEVs. The method with good stability, biocompatibility, and detection performance provided a powerful means for in vivo detection of PD-L1+ sEVs, contributing to the clinical diagnosis and treatment of tumor.