Exosomes, a type of nanovesicle, are distinct cellular entities specifically capable of carrying various cargos between cells. It has been hypothesized that exosomes, as an enriched source of biomolecules, may serve as biomarkers for various diseases.
This review introduces general aspects of exosomes, presents the challenges in exosome research, discusses the potential of exosomes as biomarkers, and describes the contribution of microfluidic technology to enable their isolation and analysis for diagnostic and disease monitoring. Additionally, clinical applications of exosomes for diagnostic purposes are also summarized.
On-chip surface acoustic wave lysis and ion-exchange nanomembrane detection of exosomal RNA for the study and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, developed by Taller et al.