Migrasomes are newly discovered extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are formed in migrating cells and mediate intercellular communication. However, their size, biological generation, cargo packaging, transport, and effects on recipient cells by migrasomes are different from those of other EVs. In addition to mediating organ morphogenesis during zebrafish gastrulation, discarding damaged mitochondria, and lateral transport of mRNA and proteins, growing evidence has demonstrated that migrasomes mediate a variety of pathological processes. Researchers from Jiangsu University summarize the discovery, mechanisms of formation, isolation, identification, and mediation of cellular communication in migrasomes. They discuss migrasome-mediated disease processes, such as osteoclast differentiation, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, tumor cell metastasis by PD-L1 transport, immune cell chemotaxis to the site of infection by chemokines, angiogenesis promotion via angiogenic factors by immune cells, and leukemic cells chemotaxis to the site of mesenchymal stromal cells. Moreover, as new EVs, the researchers propose the potential of migrasomes for disease diagnosis and treatment.
Migrasomes from RAW264.7 cells
Transmission electron microscopy image of migrasomes after 24 h of cell culture (the left side), Scale bar = 1 μm. The larger magnification image of the white box in the left (the right side), Scale bar = 1 μm. The white arrows indicate the migrasomes