Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication during cancer progression; thus, elucidating the mechanism of EV secretion in cancer cells will contribute to the development of an EV-targeted cancer treatment. However, the biogenesis of EVs in cancer cells is not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a variety of biological phenomena; thus, miRNAs could regulate EV secretion.
Researchers from Tokyo Medical University performed high-throughput miRNA-based screening to identify the regulators of EV secretion using an ExoScreen assay. By using this method, they identified miR-26a involved in EV secretion from prostate cancer (PCa) cells. In addition, they found that SHC4, PFDN4, and CHORDC1 genes regulate EV secretion in PCa cells. Furthermore, the progression of the PCa cells suppressing these genes was inhibited in an in vivo study. Together, these findings suggest that miR-26a regulates EV secretion via targeting SHC4, PFDN4, and CHORDC1 in PCa cells, resulting in the suppression of PCa progression.