Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous particles that play a crucial role in molecular trafficking, intercellular transport and the egress of unwanted proteins. They have been implicated in many diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. EVs are detected in all bodily fluids, and their protein and nucleic acid content offers a means of assessing the status of the cells from which they originated. As such, they provide opportunities in biomarker discovery for diagnosis, prognosis or the stratification of diseases as well as an objective monitoring of therapies. The simultaneous assaying of multiple EV-derived markers will be required for an impactful practical application, and multiplexing platforms have evolved with the potential to achieve this. University of Oxford researchers provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available multiplexing platforms for EV analysis, with a primary focus on miniaturized and integrated devices that offer potential step changes in analytical power, throughput and consistency.
Main external-coding strategies for EV profiling. Multiplexing is typically based on the combination of multiple receptors with one of the four coding strategies. Depending on how the analyte signal is generated and transduced, multiple external codes generated by chemical reporter labelling, physical spatial coding, biological coding, or nanoparticle coding, can be used in association with multiple receptors (QDs = quantum dots, NP = nanoparticles)