Plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) have recently emerged as a promising area of research due to their potential health benefits and biomedical applications. Produced by various plant species, these EVs contain diverse bioactive molecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Increasing in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that PDEVs have inherent pharmacological activities that affect cellular processes, exerting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, which can potentially contribute to disease therapy and improve human health. Additionally, PDEVs have shown potential as efficient and biocompatible drug delivery vehicles in treating various diseases. However, while PDEVs serve as a potential rising star in modern healthy diets and biomedical applications, further research is needed to address their underlying knowledge gaps, especially the lack of standardized protocols for their isolation, identification, and large-scale production. Furthermore, the safety and efficacy of PDEVs in clinical applications must be thoroughly evaluated.
Researchers at the National Taiwan University discuss current knowledge in the PDEV field, including their characteristics, biomedical applications, and isolation methods, to provide an overview of the current state of PDEV research. Finally, they discuss the challenges regarding the current and prospective issues for PDEVs. This review is expected to provide new insights into healthy diets and biomedical applications of vegetables and fruits, inspiring new advances in natural food-based science and technology.