Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown to have effective application prospects in the medical field, but exosome yield is very low. The production of exosome mimetic vesicles (EMVs) by continuous cell extrusion leads to more EMVs than exosomes, but whether the protein compositions of MSC-derived EMVs (MSC-EMVs) and exosomes (MSC-exosomes) are substantially different remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive proteomic analysis of MSC-EMVs and MSC-exosomes and to simply explore the effects of exosomes and EMVs on wound healing ability. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of EMVs and exosomes.
In this study, EMVs from human umbilical cord MSCs (hUC MSCs) were isolated by continuous extrusion, and exosomes were identified after hUC MSC ultracentrifugation. A proteomic analysis was performed, and 2315 proteins were identified. The effects of EMVs and exosomes on the proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated by cell counting kit-8, scratch wound, transwell and tubule formation assays. A mouse mode was used to evaluate the effects of EMVs and exosomes on wound healing.
Bioinformatics analyses revealed that 1669 proteins in both hUC MSC-EMVs and hUC MSC-exosomes play roles in retrograde vesicle-mediated transport and vesicle budding from the membrane. The 382 proteins unique to exosomes participate in extracellular matrix organization and extracellular structural organization, and the 264 proteins unique to EMVs target the cell membrane. EMVs and exosomes can promote wound healing and angiogenesis in mice and promote the proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of HUVECs.
Bioanalysis of proteins common to hUC MSC-EMVs and hUC MSC-exosomes
Venn diagrams of proteins in hUC MSC-EMVs and hUC MSC-exosomes (A). The cytolocalization of the shared proteins between hUC MSC-EMVs and hUC MSC-exosomes (B). PPI network of the shared proteins (C). GO analysis of the shared proteins (D). KEGG analysis of the shared proteins (E)
This study presents a comprehensive proteomic analysis of hUC MSC-derived exosomes and EMVs generated by different methods. The tissue repair function of EMVs and exosomes was herein verified by wound healing experiments, and these results reveal their potential applications in different fields based on analyses of their shared and unique proteins.