Exosomal biomarkers including tumor-derived exosomes, exosomal surface proteins and exosomal nucleic acids have emerged as one of the most important and general cancer biomarkers in modern biomedical science. These indicators can provide momentous biological information for early diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Recently, numerous studies have been conducted to design biosensors for exosomal biomarkers detection and profiling with high sensitivity and strong applied ability. Among these biosensors, nanomaterial-based optical biosensors are prospective future platforms for rapid and cost-effective detection of exosomal biomarkers.
Researchers from Southeast University, Nanjing focus on the progress and advancements in different optical-transducing approaches (Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Colorimetry, Immunochromatographic assay, Chemiluminescence, Electrochemiluminescence, and fluorescence) for detecting and profiling exosomal biomarkers. Additionally, they have summarized strengths and drawbacks of each strategy. Finally, challenges and future outlooks in developing efficient nanomaterial-based optical biosensor systems for exosomal tumor biomarkers detection have been discussed.