Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are a type of membranous vesicles that can be released by cells into the extracellular space. The relationship between sEVs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is highly intricate and interdependent. This symbiotic relationship plays a pivotal role in facilitating intercellular communication and holds profound implications for a myriad of biological processes. The concept of sEVs and their ncRNA cargo as a “Trojan Horse” highlights their remarkable capacity to traverse biological barriers and surreptitiously deliver their cargo to target cells, evading detection by the host-immune system. Accumulating evidence suggests that sEVs may be harnessed as carriers to ferry therapeutic ncRNAs capable of selectively silencing disease-driving genes, particularly in conditions such as cancer. This approach presents several advantages over conventional drug delivery methods, opening up new possibilities for targeted therapy and improved treatment outcomes. However, the utilization of sEVs and ncRNAs as therapeutic agents raises valid concerns regarding the possibility of unforeseen consequences and unintended impacts that may emerge from their application. It is important to consider the fundamental attributes of sEVs and ncRNAs, including by an in-depth analysis of the practical and clinical potentials of exosomes, serving as a representative model for sEVs encapsulating ncRNAs.
The intricate biological functions of exosomal non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs).