Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are phospholipid bilayer membrane-enclosed structures containing RNAs, proteins, lipids, metabolites, and other molecules, secreted by various cells into physiological fluids. EV-mediated transfer of biomolecules is a critical component of a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Potential applications of EVs in novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have brought increasing attention. However, EV research remains highly challenging due to the inherently complex biogenesis of EVs and their vast heterogeneity in size, composition, and origin. There is a need for the establishment of standardized methods that address EV heterogeneity and sources of pre-analytical and analytical variability in EV studies. Researchers from Northeastern University discuss technologies developed for EV isolation and characterization and discuss paths toward standardization in EV research.
Overview of Biochemical Techniques Used for Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Characterization