The biological function of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles on metabolism

Multiple studies have shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a key role in the process of information transfer and material transport between cells. EVs are classified into different types according to their sizes, which includes the class of exosomes. In comparison to normal EVs, tumor-derived EVs (TDEs) have both altered components and quantities of contents. TDEs have been shown to help facilitate an environment conducive to the occurrence and development of tumor by regulation of glucose, lipids and amino acids. Furthermore, TDEs can also affect the host metabolism and immune system. EVs have been shown to have multiple clinically useful properties, including the use of TDEs as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diseases and using the transport properties of exosomes for drug delivery. Targeting the key bioactive cargoes of exosomes could be applied to provide new strategies for the treatment of tumors. Researchers from Wuhan University discuss the studies focused on measuring the effects of TDE on tumor-related microenvironment and systemic metabolism.

Regulation of metabolism by tumor-derived exosomes

Fig. 1

Tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) carrying specific substances are secreted after intracellular ESCRT machinery. TDEs act on CAFs to promote glycolysis by up-regulating GLU1 expression and down-regulating Cav1 expression. Then CAF-derived exosomes (CDEs) also act in reverse to promote glycolysis of tumor cells. TDEs could promote the polarization of TAMs towards M2 by increasing the level of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHS) and inhibiting insulin-AKT-mTOR signal pathway of TAMs. TDEs act on MSCs to inhibit adipogenesis and promote glycolysis. TDEs act on CAAs to promote lipolysis and glycerol release. TDEs act on the pre-metastatic niche to reduce glycolysis by reducing the expression of GLU1 and PKM2 in non-tumor cells, creating a more suitable survival environment for metastasis. For the whole body, TDEs improve lipolysis, abnormal glycose metabolism and bone metabolism

Fu X, Song J, Yan W, Downs BM, Wang W, Li J. (2023) The biological function of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles on metabolism. Cell Commun Signal 21(1):150. [abstract]

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