Extracellular vesicles (EVs), and especially exosomes, have been shown to mediate information exchange between distant cells; this process directly affects the biological characteristics and functionality of the recipient cell. As such, EVs significantly contribute to the shaping of immune responses in both physiology and disease states. While vesicles secreted by immune cells are often implicated in the allergic process, growing evidence indicates that EVs from non-immune cells, produced in the stroma or epithelia of the organs directly affected by inflammation may also play a significant role. Researchers from the University of Gdansk discuss the mechanisms of allergy to which those EVs contribute, with a particular focus on small EVs (sEVs). They also give a clinical perspective regarding the utilization of the EV-mediated communication route for the benefit of allergic patients.
Involvement of non-immune cell-secreted extracellular vesicles
in immunological processes of innate and adaptive immunity
Extracellular vesicles produced by cells of non-immune origin participate in exchange of information that contributes to immune responses. In the innate arm EVs enable passive immunity and may both induce activation and modulate innate cell function. In the adaptive arm EVs may influence antigen presentation, affect dendritic cell differentiation and phenotype; they have also been implicated in T cell polarization into Th or Treg subsets. sEVs, small EVs; m/lEVs, medium/large EVs.