Exosomes are nano-scale messengers loaded with bio-molecular cargo of RNA, DNA, and Proteins. As a master regulator of cellular signalling, stem cell (both normal, and cancer stem cells) secreted exosome orchestrate various autocrine and paracrine functions which alter tumor micro-environment, growth and progression. Exosomes secreted by one of the two important stem cell phenotypes in cancers a) Mesenchymal stem cells, and b) Cancer stem cells not only promote cancerous growth but also impart therapy resistance in cancer cells. In tumors, normal or mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) derived exosomes (MSC-exo) modulate tumor hallmarks by delivering unique miRNA species to neighbouring cells and help in tumor progression. Apart from regulating tumor cell fate, MSC-exo are also capable of inducing physiological processes e.g. angiogenesis, metastasis etc. Similarly, cancer stem sells (CSCs) derived exosomes (CSC-exo) contain stemness-specific proteins, self-renewal promoting regulatory miRNAs, and survival factors. CSC-exo specific cargo maintains tumor heterogeneity and alters tumor progression. Researchers from ExoCan Healthcare Technologies critically discuss the importance of stem cell specific exosomes in tumor cell signalling pathways with their role in tumor biology.
Tumor biology modulation by Stem cell derived exosomes