Both extracellular vesicles (EVs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been increasingly investigated as biomarkers, pathophysiological mediators, and potential therapeutics. While these two entities have often been studied separately, there are increasing reports of EV-associated lncRNA activity in processes such as oncogenesis as well as tissue repair and regeneration. Given the powerful nature and emerging translational impact of other noncoding RNAs such as microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA, lncRNA therapeutics may represent a new frontier. While EVs are natural vehicles that transport and protect lncRNAs physiologically, they can also be engineered for enhanced cargo loading and therapeutic properties. Researchers from the University of Maryland College Park discuss the activity of lncRNAs relevant to both tissue repair and cancer treatment and discuss the role of EVs in enabling the potential of lncRNA therapeutics.
Methods to control long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) loading into extracellular vesicles (EVs)
Top left, EVs could be isolated from cells known to release vesicles enriched in an lncRNA of interest. Top right, cells could be cultured in an environment that causes enrichment of a specific EV‐associated lncRNA. Bottom right, lncRNAs of interest could be overexpressed via cellular transfection/transduction resulting in stoichiometric enrichment in EVs. Bottom left, lncRNAs of interest could be overexpressed via cellular transfection/transduction followed by creation of EV‐mimics, for example, by filter extrusion