Cell-based therapies have been used as promising treatments for several untreatable diseases. However, cell-based therapies have side effects such as tumorigenesis and immune responses. To overcome these side effects, therapeutic effects of exosomes have been researched as replacements for cell-based therapies. In addition, exosomes reduced the risk that can be induced by cell-based therapies. Exosomes contain biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids that play an essential role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during biological processes. Since the introduction of exosomes, those have been proven perpetually as one of the most effective and therapeutic methods for incurable diseases. Much research has been conducted to enhance the properties of exosomes, including immune regulation, tissue repair, and regeneration. However, yield rate of exosomes is the critical obstacle that should be overcome for practical cell-free therapy. Three-dimensional (3D) culture methods are introduced as a breakthrough to get higher production yields of exosomes. For example, hanging drop and microwell were well known 3D culture methods and easy to use without invasiveness. However, these methods have limitation in mass production of exosomes. Therefore, a scaffold, spinner flask, and fiber bioreactor were introduced for mass production of exosomes isolated from various cell types. Furthermore, exosomes treatments derived from 3D cultured cells showed enhanced cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and immunosuppressive properties. Sungkyunkwan University researchers discuss therapeutic applications of exosomes using 3D culture methods.
Three-dimensional culture methods and cell types for exosome production
Lee DH, Yun DW, Kim YH, Im GB, Hyun J, Park HS, Bhang SH, Choi SH. (2023) Various Three-Dimensional Culture Methods and Cell Types for Exosome Production. Tissue Eng Regen Med [Epub ahead of print]. [abstract]