Extracellular vesicles (EV) are emerging structures with promising properties for intercellular communication. In addition, the characterization of EV in biofluids is an attractive source of non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Here researchers from CIC bioGUNE, Spain show that urinary EV (uEV) from prostate cancer (PCa) patients exhibit genuine and differential physical and biological properties compared to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Importantly, transcriptomics characterization of uEVs led us to define the decreased abundance of Cadherin 3, type 1 (CDH3) transcript in uEV from PCa patients. Tissue and cell line analysis strongly suggested that the status of CDH3 in uEVs is a distal reflection of changes in the expression of this cadherin in the prostate tumor. CDH3 was negatively regulated at the genomic, transcriptional, and epigenetic level in PCa. These results reveal that uEVs could represent a non-invasive tool to inform about the molecular alterations in PCa.
Physical characterization of uEVs from PCa and BPH samples.
(A) Representatives cryo-TEM micrographs of uEVs isolated from BPH and PCa urine samples. Bar, 100 nm. n = 3. (B and C) Box-plots showing number (B) or size (C) of particles isolated from each group, indicating the mean and s.e.m. (n = 23 fo BPH and 30 for PCa). (D) Size distribution of the particles isolated from each preparation (Mean ± s.e.m. is depicted, n = 23 fo BPH and 30 for PCa). Statistic test: Student t test.