Extracellular vesicles and extracellular RNA in aging and age-related disease

Researchers at the National Institute on Aging have explored circulating markers of aging and an important age-related disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Their discovery of differences in exRNAs and EVs contributes to establishing a baseline reference for how these circulating molecules change with human age. As risk for most chronic diseases increases with age, it is important to consider aging when examining these factors for a specific disease. The researchers propose that the circulating biomarkers they have begun to catalog in normal aging will help identify individuals with faster rates of biological aging that may result in diminished health span and life span. Further characterization of exRNAs and EVs in diverse cohorts will expand the value of circulating biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic markers of disease.

Changes in extracellular vesicles in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Higher extracellular vesicle (EV) concentration was observed in individuals with diabetes mellitus compared to euglycemics. This is accompanied by decreased levels of insulin signaling proteins in EVs. EVs from diabetics are more readily internalized by B cells and induce inflammatory signals in monocytes.

Hooten NN. (2020) Extracellular vesicles and extracellular RNA in aging and age-related disease. Translational Medicine of Aging [online ahead of print]. [article]

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